scribbles tagged ‘graveyard’

General cemetery for none-specific cash burials

Thursday, June 13th, 2013 | tags: , , , ,  |

General Cemetery - beautiful on a sunny dayThe Sheffield General cemetery is a registered charity run by trustees, this means it’s a ‘private’ rather than ‘public’ cemetery.  Wild and unkempt, graves unplotted and stones crumbling. It’s one of the earliest commercial cemeteries, and garden cemeteries, in Britain. People paid to be buried here in good company of other wealthy people. They were the new ‘Middle’ class who were mainly ‘Dissenters’, Nonconformists, Protestants who were separate from the Church of England. The cemetery was probably a symbol of the rise of these non-conformists outside of the gentry who inherited their wealth and were mainly Church of England.

The General cemetery is less than 2.5 miles away from the Sheffield City Road cemetery which run by Sheffield local government, a public cemetery. It was built 45 years before the City road cemetery in 1836 because:

“Graveyards were overflowing and there was an urgent need to find more space for the bodies (safe from body snatchers!)…   …where people could be buried in a way that reflected their earthly wealth and status…   …in a ‘remote and undisturbed’ location. It became established as the principal burial ground in Victorian Sheffield containing the graves of 87,000 people…

General Cemetery Grand entrancewayIt took me about 40 minutes to walk the uphill mile from the city centre train station to the General cemetery. Poor people were buried in this private cemetery, but not with individual graves. Their website announces that the General cemetery throws all the bodies of the poor into one plot, it contains:

“the largest single grave plot in the country, holding the bodies of 96 paupers “

This was about making a profit for the private company shareholders, they did it by:

“burying paupers for the Poor Law authorities. They charged five shillings (25 pence) for each pauper. Then they waited until they had a cartful of them and saved space by burying them all in a single plot”


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the unburied are dangerous or injurious to the public health

Sunday, June 9th, 2013 | tags: , , , , ,  |

route to CCI 19097Gray graves some falling overThe ‘City Road’ cemetery in Sheffield is well maintained, the grass is cut, fallen stones are repositioned, and mature trees shade the pedestrian walkways through it’s extensive hillside grounds. It has separate Church of England, Nonconformist and Roman Catholic burial grounds. Originally known as the Sheffield Township Burial Ground or Intake Cemetery (City Road was formerly called Intake Road), it was renamed the City Road cemetery when it was taken over by Sheffield City Council in 1900.

It was built because of:

1) the rapidly increasing population in Sheffield.

“1736 Sheffield and its surrounding hamlets held about 7000 people, in 1801 there were around 60,000 inhabitants, and by 1901, the population had grown to 451,195″ (Wikipedia)

“By 1841 there would be 110,000 people within its [Sheffield town] boundaries, and hardly any sanitation…   …disease was common and people did not live long. At this time the citizens of Sheffield died at an average age of just 27…   …The huge number of deaths at this time” (Sheffield General cemetery website)

2) the rapidly dying population in Sheffield due to a cholera epidemic that started in the town during 1832:

“meant that the churchyards in Sheffield were becoming full to overflowing. The dead were often kept under the floor of the church, and sometimes in these places you could really smell death…   …it was not unknown to see bits of corpses sticking out from the overfilled graves” (Sheffield General cemetery website)

3) and the introduction of ‘Burial Act’s which still apply today. These Acts required that dead people are buried, even the poor who can’t afford to pay for burial, because of the health risk associated with their lying unburied.  The local parish is required to fund the burial of the poor:

“persons as may have the care of any vaults or places of burial, for preventing them from becoming or continuing dangerous or injurious to the public health; . . . and such . . . persons shall do or cause to be done all acts ordered as aforesaid, and the expenses incurred in and about the doing thereof shall be paid out of the poor rates of the parish”

City Road cemetery is the largest cemetery in Sheffield:

“opened in 1881…  …It covers 100 acres, and is the largest owned by Sheffield City Council…   …By September 2005 almost 163,000 people had been buried within the cemetery occupying over 20,000 graves; some having as many as 8 or 9 bodies in them”

Entrance viewed From the CrematoriumSoon after the cemetery opened Sheffield was granted a charter to become a city in 1893. This garden cemetery was  commissioned and funded by the “Sheffield Township Burial Board”.   Their visits to Birmingham’s Whitton cemetery and Liverpool’s Anfield Cemetery probably influenced their  decisions about the lay-out and running of the cemetery. In 1878 the land for the cemetery was purchased from the fifteenth Duke of Norfolk for £13,625. A requirement of the purchase was that a proportion of the ground would be allocated for Roman Catholic burial. This requirement suggests to me that Catholics in England still suffered from discrimination. That is, the Duke of Norfolk didn’t expect a burial ground to automatically include Catholics, he felt the need to specify that the should be included to avoid them being excluded.

Hillside graves of many shapes and sizesLocal architects Messrs M E Hadfield and Son designed it to include Church of England and Nonconformist chapels. A catholic chapel was added in 1889. As-if the designers planned without including a Catholic area and had to retrospectively add it because of the purchase agreement.


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fallen

Tuesday, May 28th, 2013 | tags: , , ,  |

St Margarets churchSt Margarets churchI’m in Swinton to look for the burial plot of Peter (1873) and Mary (1870) Robertson in St. Margaret’s church.

St Margaret’s Church is a large parish church, suggesting the town was wealthy when it was last built, following a fire, in 1899. The walls of the church are puritanically plain with a simple wall hanging between each window marking the stations of the cross, from the passion. I associate the 14 stations of the cross with Catholicism.

Some gravestones mark burials as early as 1843. The earlier graves are closer to the church. Many of the grave markers are missing. Once there would have been neat rows of east-west facing stones. It looks like nearly half of the stones in this early part of the graveyard have gone. Fallen. When I asked the Verger about the missing stones she said it was due to ‘Subsidence’, quite literally fallen. There are no maps of the burial plot, she doesn’t know of any records. I suspect they were lost in the fire of 1897, I’ll ask the vicar.

St Margarets graveyardSt Margarets bluebells in the graveyardI’d emailed the Vicar 2 weeks before visiting, he hadn’t acknowledged receiving my email. He must be a very busy man.  Two hours carefully uncovering, reading, the names on all the headstones in the older part of the graveyard, I regret not having  phoned the Vicar before I visited.

While I search the graveyard children run through, it’s a through-route to the local park. Elderly people carry shopping through the graveyard, it’s a through route between social housing bungalows and the main shopping high street. This place is alive with people.  Most passers-by say hello and comment on the lovely weather.

This is a warm, friendly place

The Verger explained that the Vicar is very busy.  The Verger looks busy. She is here. The Vicar only answers the phone in his office, in the church, but he’s rarely there. I wonder what keeps the vicar so busy away from the home of his congregation.  The Verger suggests that I visit the church on a Monday night between 6.30 and 7pm, that’s when the Vicar comes to meet the public and deal with things like arranging weddings. But not this Monday because he’s very busy with Whitsun.  Again, I wonder how this vicar spends his time caring for his living flock.

Alas, I didn’t find Peter (1873) and Mary (1870) Robertson’s burial plot. I did spend a very pleasant afternoon looking.


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passed and past

Saturday, February 16th, 2013 | tags: , , , , ,  |

planted crossThe graveyard at Cemetery junction in Reading town is a ‘Garden Cemetery’, designed and planted to enable visitors to promenade.

Most weekends I’ll take a stroll around the cemetery, enjoying the natural peace and beauty and the wonderful sculptural art placed there as remembrances to people….

passed and past


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more boxes

Saturday, January 22nd, 2011 | tags: , , ,  |

mausoleumsRecently we’ve considered telephone boxes and police boxes.

These boxes are for another form of communication. Can you see the resemblance?

These boxes house the remains of deceased family members, momentos of the lives of those people. People visit them to talk to their spirits, and their gods


1 wonderful musing »

buried empire

Wednesday, November 17th, 2010 | tags: ,  |

Arnos Vale Cemetery11am, Memorial Sunday

A small group gathered at the Arnos Vale cemetery war memorial. I stand in silence during the ceremony then wander on. A lady from the memorial group approaches

Rob is going to give a talk and show a video on the work of the commonwealth war grave commission, would you like to join us? There’s tea?

Oh yes! what a treat. I walk with them to a grand building that is empty inside save a tressle table holding a large tea urn, jug of milk and collection of tea bags. I take a mug of tea and a seat. A young man introduces himself

I’m Dave. I heard the trumpet and came in.

He is another wanderer, lured to the cemetery. A man of few words, recently moved to Bristol in search of work.

Arnos Vale CemeteryRob was nervous.

The video was an excellent mix of World War 2 footage, Michael Palin’s narration, and images of war memorials and graveyards from around the world. In France they are still discovering and re-buring bodies, everytime they lay a new road, build some housing, the bodies are there, just beneath the surface. Rob refers to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission  (CWGC) as the Impperial war graves commission, as if he can’t quite let go of the fact that Britian is no longer an Empire.  The CWGC tries to identify the newly discovered bodies, records their existence and reburies them in the local war graves cemetery.


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frozen flaps

Thursday, January 7th, 2010 | tags: , , , ,  |

My fluffballs are indoor kitties with their own kitty-litter box.

Many british cats are outdoor-indoor cats with their own ‘cat-flap’ in the household door, window or wall.

Cedar in cemeteryHow does such deep and freezing snow affect outdoor cats?   How do they get through a cat-flap that is below snow level?   Even if their human digs out the snow by the flap where do they make the cat pathway go?   Cats like to bury their doings, how do they do this when the earth and snow is frozen?

I’m concerned for the many  cats that do their doings outside.   It’s not made national news yet but  given cat ownership in this country it is a pending disaster.    Worse, on a personal level  I’m running low on my supply of kitty-litter.

What to do with indoor kitties that need doings doing and no litter for doing it in?

(obligatory local snow scene picture)

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Bernard Laurence Hieatt

Tuesday, December 29th, 2009 | tags: ,  |

Bernard Hieatt    founded the Reading motorcycle club and was a Brooklands Motorcycle champion  and Aviator who died age 21 in 1930.   This memorial   to Bernard and his brother Stanley is in the Cemetry junction graveyard

Memorial: Bernard Laurence HieattMemorial engraving Bernard Laurence Hieatt


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the departed

Tuesday, September 2nd, 2008 | tags: ,  |

mausoleums and gravesGreek graveyards were wonderful.   White marble graves are adorned with photographs of the deceased,   lit oil lamps, occassionally lit  incense burners and well maintained live potted plants.   The graves are tended regularly and often have a little cupboard built into the headstone where the carers store basic maintainance equipment.   Some graves contained glass sliding doors behind which the photographs sat and occassionally a couple of glasses implying that the living came here to take a drink with the departed.

The Geeeks recognise their  elderly and departed in a more noticable way than I am used to in either the UK or US cultures I’ve lived within.

Graves through a mausoleum windowThis Imerovigli graveyard contains rows of mausoleum type rooms.   Each mausoleum contained labelled wooden boxes with many different photographs,   places for the living to visit the dead in peace.

I wonder whether the departed are carried to their resting place by mule


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muntjac deer

Tuesday, March 25th, 2008 | tags: , ,  |

in the city cemetery

at cemetery junction

wandering around as if they own the place and no way-out except using the pedestrian crossings across the A4 or A329.    Neither crossing to be taken-on lightly by even the most hikingly-well-equipped-human.  

Odd to find wild deer in the city so close to my home…   well protected deer,   by the community police that live in the cemetery gate and parole the area in small bicycle packs…


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graves marked by hats

Tuesday, August 21st, 2007 | tags: , , , ,  |

In Spains Catholic religious capital Cathedral, Toledo, the burial places of Cardinals are marked by their hats being suspecnded from the ceiling above.   The hats hang until they decompose.   They add an eerie feeling to the cathedral as they gently swing in the silence.


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grave stacking

Tuesday, June 12th, 2007 | tags:  |

using a single grave for more than one body is not a new phenomenon.  

By contrast, national, retrospective decisions to re-use graves and  moving bodies  lower down probably has some novelty.     The UK government has estimated that they will run-out of grave space within 30 years.    Many graveyards are already full.   Closed to new bodies.   Compulsory re-use of graves is one step they are taking to tackle the problem:

remains will be exhumed and re-interred at a deeper level in a smaller container or casket. A new coffin could then be lowered into the original space and the names of the newly buried added to the existing tombstone or to new plaques.


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Tombstones #8: the big recycle

Monday, April 16th, 2007 | tags: ,  |


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Tombstones #7: the earth is verging on flat

Sunday, April 15th, 2007 | tags: ,  |

the earth is verging on flat,   and if it isn’t,  in this here graveyard, we’ll roll the earth ’til it darn well looks flat.  

This ancient rusty garden roller was hidden under a Yew tree in a Devonshire graveyard,   covered in recent mowings and this year’s Ivy growth ready for use in the summer.   In the Church of England    Vergers often arrange for the care of the graveyard,   rolling the grounds.  

Is there a connection between the verge at the roadside and a Verger?    I’ve only been able to find,   create,  a tenuous link using  this phrase on the Vergers Guild of the Episcopalian Church website, my highlight:

assists the clergy in the conduct of public worship, especially in the marshalling of processions

it looks like part of the verger’s job description is making sure that processors don’t trample on the verges.

The Merriam-Webster defintion of Verge    differentiates the meanings like this:

1 a (1) : a rod or staff carried as an emblem of authority or symbol of office (2) obsolete : a stick or wand held by a person being admitted to tenancy while he swears fealty b : the spindle of a watch balance; especially : a spindle with pallets in an old vertical escapement c : the male copulatory organ of any of various invertebrates
2 a : something that borders, limits, or bounds: as (1) : an outer margin of an object or structural part (2) : the edge of roof covering (as tiling) projecting over the gable of a roof (3) British : a paved or planted strip of land at the edge of a road : SHOULDER b : BRINK, THRESHOLD <a country on the verge of destruction — Archibald MacLeish>

One way of imagining the  relationship between these two meanings is that the stick/wand/staff  (1a) is used to shepherd people on the borders/limits/marigns/edge (2a)  back into the fold.


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Tombstones #5: mausolea

Friday, March 30th, 2007 | tags: ,  |

According to the Mausolea and Monuments Trust (UK) a Mausoleum is:

A mausoleum is a house of the dead. Larger than tombs, these buildings are free-standing roofed structures erected to receive coffins. They take their name from one of the Wonders of the Ancient World, the vast tomb of King Mausolus of Halicarnassus in Asia Minor. Most British mausolea date from the 18th and 19th centuries. Symbols of dynastivc pride, pious respect and love, they stand in their hundreds in churchyards, cemeteries and parks. Many of Britain’s finest architects were involved in their design. Neo-classical, Egyptian or Gothic, they form a varied, emotionally charged, and irreplaceable part of the built heritage….

…   In law they belong to those that built them, but in many cases the families have died out or lost interest.   Parish councils, local authorities and cemetery companies must ensure the buildings do not become dangerous, but are not responsible for their upkeep. So, as private monuments in the public domain, they fall outside the normal patterns of care.

 I’ve seen, noticed, very few mausolea in English graveyards,   they are the exceptional grave style reserved for the Wealthy or well respected.   Thier predominance in the 18th and 19th century maps to the new wealth and changing lifestyles that came with the Industrial Revolution.  

In the many, mainly village,  graveyards that I visited during the Tea and Tombstone Tour I noticed only these 2 Mausolea.   Decaying,   broken,   headless gargoyles,  rotting wooden doors,  in the Trowbridge cemetery

 


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Lych gate

Monday, March 26th, 2007 | tags:  |

Many English churches  have a Lych gate at the entrance to the graveyard.   I have not yet seen a Lych gate in the USA.   The brief description of the gate I’ve found repeated across the web is:

a roofed gate to a churchyard, formerly used as a temporary shelter for the bier during funerals (noun)

The corpse waits in the Lych (Corpse) gate for the priest to come to it and start the ceremony.   I have not found any online  references to the ‘folk’ belief I somehow gathered as a child.   My folk belief is that placing the corpse down in the lych gate somehow stopped evil (pagan?) spirits riding the body into the concecrated grounds of the churchyard.

St. Mary the Virgin, Portbury’s churchyard Lych Gate, dustbin and daffodils:


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Tombstones #4: path liners

Sunday, March 18th, 2007 | tags: ,  |

 

In some crowded church graveyards the old stones  are moved from thier original positions to edges of patchways or the yard.   I have no idea where the original graves are.    This is an  example from the 15th Century  St. Andrew’s church in Ashburton,   Devon.    The church normally keeps records of the grave-plots.  

Notice that the walkway is also lined with Yew trees.   Despite their amazing lifespan (4,000 yrs?) the Yew tree is poisonous and  known as the ‘Death tree’,    it  

has a tight-grained wood, tough and resilient, used in the past for spears, spikes, staves, small hunting bows and eventually the famous longbows of the Middle Ages. The arrows were tipped with poison made from the Yew.

The Yews may have predated the placing of the  Chrisitain church indicating a pre-christian sacred site.   Placing the yew trees within the church yard or the Church within the Yew-tree site prevented local animals from eating the Yews and gave the religious group control of a core source material for weaponry.


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Tombstones #3: lean on me

Monday, March 12th, 2007 | tags: ,  |

affection after death


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Tombstones #2: sinking

Sunday, March 11th, 2007 | tags: ,  |

there’s a strange mix of neglect and care evident in the rural graveyards.   The grass is recently mowed,   graves more than 300 years are often collapsing and neglected.   In thier collapse they gain a beauty beyond that the Mason’s originally planned for them.    A clear reminder of our transient role in the universe.  


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Tombstones #1: dusk over Holy Trinity

Wednesday, March 7th, 2007 | tags: ,  |

The order of events upon arrival:

  1. tea
  2. pick-up hire-car
  3. tea
  4. drive to parents home
  5. tea
  6. walk mumzie around the local church, Holy Trinity,  graveyard before dusk claims the light for the day
  7. tea


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coming soon: the TT tour

Tuesday, February 27th, 2007 | tags: ,  |

TT = Tea & Tombstone*

Soon I will be leaving on a  whistlestop tour of southern England including Cornwall during March 2007.   En route the tour will  take regular rest stops in real English tea rooms for comparision with the US versions and graveyards to gather an insight into the passing of life and time.

The excitement levels in the Wendy House are fast approaching hurricane warning levels.   Hatches  that should be firmly  battened down are furiously flappying.    Cumulatively this could result in a break in regular service.

This tour will be bought to you by the colour purple,   the letter T and the number 43

* the TT Tour T-shirts have not yet gone to the printers so I reserve the right to extend the name of this tour with another T word after the fact.


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graveyard punctuation

Tuesday, January 2nd, 2007 | tags: , , , ,  |

Innocently wandering through a Dungeness, not Dungeness, graveyard.   As one is wont to do.

Minding my own business.  Reading the odd,   very odd, gravestone.   When,

SUDDENLY

As if from nowhere,   a cryptic cat launched itself at my torso.    It cunningly used pin-prick  claws to latch onto my skinny left thigh.   While chewing my zipper and partially succeeding in mesmerizing me with talking eyes the  killer kitty eye’d my nose as a potential source of protien:

Scared, me?   Oh yes.

Lot’s of ‘nice kitty’s were administered to secure my thigh’s freedom.

Finally I discovered that offering my fingers as a sacrifice helped lure the kitty’s claws from my leg as it performed the twistiest of jumps in a digit devouring  frenzy.   My fingers and legs bare punctuation scars…

I’ve not heard an American use the phrase ‘graveyard’ nor seen sign’s with the phrase.   Roads are called ‘cemetary road’ and sign’s indicate cemetaries.    Modern cemetaries  are often labelled  ‘memorial garden’.   The mutliple, relevant,  related meanings  that come with using the word  ‘grave‘ appeal to me:

  1. dig; excavate.
  2. carve or shape with a chisel: sculpture; carve or cut (as letters or figures) into a hard surface: engrave.
  3. to impress or fix (as a thought) deeply.

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Dating thermostat

Tuesday, November 8th, 2005 | tags: , ,  |
Some temperature guides for a selection of tested and imagined ‘first dates’.    
     
Hot (Wendy needs post-date Tea to resume normal service afterwards):
  • Digging-up Anglo-Saxon graves.   Getting hot and sweaty down in the dirt,   researching people’s lives through their deaths and artifacts.   Hey that skull was placed on the skeleton’s feet!   Evidently this was common pre-christian practice to stop the ‘dead’ from coming back to life and walking away.    Not sure if someone’s dead?   Then decapitate them.    That removes uncertainty!   I DID this date and  I’ve  been digging-up skinny old bodies ever since….
  • High-diving.   oOOoOOoo! Wet,   adrenaline rush, challenge, skill and the obvious visual attractions.   There’s even time for Tea between dives.
  • Small dinghy sailing (Lasers,  Hoby-cats  and the like).   I do luurrve wriggling into my wet-suit,   holding the jib in a force 3 or more and balancing the boat for speeeeeeeed with a guy who can skipper while wearing his wet-suit with aplomb.   Calm down.    More TEA!
  • Hospital accident and emergency room.   Date demonstrated calm collectedness and caring  responsibility in a high-stress context.    Very appealing to a fall-over artist such as myself.   I’ll  be on-call for  Tea duties to help everyone stay calm.
  • Setting-up Moveable-type blogging software on my home wireless network.   Oh,   I neeeeeeeeeed that…     …I lurrrve a man who gives me what I need….    
  • Clairvoyant.    A novel way to work out whether we should have a second date.    Ask clairvoyant for a short and long term forcast.
  • Roller-coaster rides.   B-b-B-b-B-b-Bouncing!   Need to keep the thermosflask of Tea lid tightly screwed to avoid it flying up your substantial nose.
  • Gardening.   Hands and knees in the mud,   communing with nature.   Hmmmm… …natural appeal and a shower requirement…  
  • Beer Festival: Close to this girl’s heart,   flavours,   people to meet and listen to, a relaxed atmosphere and a personal interest.
  • Interactive Show:   I’m thinking of Theatro Zinzani.   Sensual,   engaging, an opportunity to dress-up and feel special, an opportunity to join in and much to talk about.
  • Tom Waits concert.   Spluuuuuusssssshhhhh…  …OH OH!…   was that good for you?    It was AMAZING for me.   I feel all dizzy.   Careful, high-fall-over risk zone (Tea wont help here).
  •  

     

     

  • BonfireNight.   5th November. Warm UK memories <Sigh>
  • ThanksGiving Dinner.   All those fabulous family members and wierdy special guests of all ages, shapes,  and fortune.   Love the generosity and the group dynamics.  
  • Wedding: think 4 weddings and a funeral,   these events are so special.    To be invited to share in someone’s special day is an exceptional wonderful gift.   Oh,   crumbs, I’m ‘gushing’.
  • Kite flying over lake union  from Gasworks park…..

   

Tepid (Safe, acceptable, polite effort):
  • Cycle-ride to a local brewery.    I like working-up a sweat  & downing a beer.   No need for Tea if the other brew’s on tap.
  • Restaurant dinner.   Certainly reveals if the date is ‘conversationally challenged’.   US restaurants may present their Tea in a visually pleasing fashion but they haven’t mastered the necessary brewing skills.
  • Mariners game.   I might get to see some passion along with the conversation.   No risk of spilling any  Tea from the thermosflask.  
  • Meet the parents.   See what he might turn-out to be like in 20 years time…  …without asking the Clairvoyant.
  • Day-trip  with fabulous views.   Pleasing the visual senses,   taking in nature.   In the Northwest this is an ‘easy’ option because there is just SO much.
  • Shopping-by-proxy.   Where the date absolutely has a deadline on purchasing something (home, bed, wedding-outfit, pet, major household appliance  etc).   Date should beg,   and I mean BEG, me to come along and give my EXPERT opinion.   Date must be prepared to LISTEN and act on that  expert opinion.
 
Cold (Wendy has a somnabulistic spasm. Oxymoron?):
  • Coffee in Starbucks.   Extremely poor Tea options.
  • Walk around a suburb.   For example, Greenlake park.   Careful,   I might get over-excited…   …Uh,   I don’t think so!
  • Mountain hike.    Leave cellular-service range with a  potential wacko for company?????   Give me credit,   I’m not COMPLETELY bonkers.

Any good-bad date stories YOU (it’s not all about me) would like to anonymously share?  

 

W seeing-reasons-for-a-good-brew-up


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Waxhaw Presbyterian Church, SC

Monday, April 25th, 2005 | tags: ,  |

Charlotte, NC #11

This church was ‘organized’ in 1755 by “Scottish-Irish’.   It was the first church in upper South Carolina.   The earliest building was made of logs and used as a hospital for wounded soldiers during the revolutionary war.   It was burned by the British.   Sounds like a war atrocity – burning a church/hospital.   The Church on the current site is the 4th version built in 1896 and remodeled in 1942 (Version 4 Service Pack 1).

The graveyard contains president Andrew Jackson’s father and “General R. Davie, Revolutionary Patriot and founder of the University of North Carolina, 1789″   He was also state governor and Minister to France (1799).

The graves generally faced South (head) to North (feet) with slight variations on this line.   I found this strange because Christian graves in old British churches tend to consistently face West (head) to East (feet).   A  detailed description of  Christian burial ritual is available at:

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03071a.htm

Excerpt:

“A man ought so to be buried”…     …  “that while his head lies to the West his feet are turned to the East, for thus he prays as it were by his very position and suggests that he is ready to hasten from the West to the East”

If anyone knows why these graves have thier feet to the North,   facing away from the church (altar),   let me know!

Some of the graves are innovately carved in styles I’ve never seen before (see picture below).   Some graves were marked very simply with a rock positioned at their head.  

Go-west Wendy


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